Energy, climate change and the opportunity for liquid biofuels. This paper provides an overview of the proven influence between anthropogenic actions such as those related with energy production and use on the natural environment. With the adverse perspectives of continued chemical changes occurring worldwide the paper also presents opportunities that can continue to ensure a more sustainable growth in harmony with the environment.
A transition for a more efficient and environmentally correct final use of energy is needed in future in such a way as to diminish the conflicts between development and environment. Different scenarios aiming to provide the ideal routes for development to occur addressing sustainability indicators are studied. Some typical options for a more sustainable future include improved energy efficiency, more renewable energy and advanced energy technologies. National programs undertaken in Brazil such as those of Energias alternas yahoo dating ethanol and biodiesel have a proven impact in the search for a sustainable future worldwide Energias alternas yahoo dating should be further emphasized in future by means of the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
It is known from chemistry that compounds occur in our natural environment. As a result of combined actions such as inner forces volcanoes, earthquakes and solar energy including water and wind erosion these compounds have been concentrated in geological areas, creating "reserves", such as fossil fuel reserves, for example petroleum, coal, methane hydrate, sand oil and natural gas.
In addition, nature has always maintained an equilibrium, although this balance has never actually rigorously existed, between incoming solar energy and the energy used by other forms of existing systems, including life. However, modern anthropogenic action has been breaking this balance, even assuming that primitive humans were somehow part of the previous almost steady-state type of situation. Humans slowly started modifying their activities, controlling technologies, breaking the equilibrium and ending up by provoking an intensive use of natural resources and negative effects to the environment.
It can be seen, that modern man's actions have resulted in an intensive use of natural reserves fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, native forests, fertile land, fresh water and others leading, chemically, to a series of highly irreversible processes with economic, and thermodynamic significance and even ending up by affecting our quality "Energias alternas yahoo dating" life.
It would be impossible to speak of energy without taking in consideration that it has a dissolvable association with the environment. The exploration of natural resources for the production and use of energy originates in significant social, environmental and economic impacts.
In the case of the exploration of renewable sources of energy hydraulic, biomass, solar and wind and others this occurs due to the extensive areas necessary for large-scale production of energy. Moreover, the improper use of alternative technology, even under normal conditions of operation, can hold considerable risks for human life and the environment.
The use of fossil fuels and other non-renewable sources of energy and power in large scale for the generation of energy and power in all sectors have also resulted in the emission of billions of tons of carbon to the global environment annually causing serious anomalies in the climate system, land, oceans, sources of water, ecological systems in general, and even in the chemistry of the atmosphere.
Even though, practically all types of energy generation Energias alternas yahoo dating unavoidable negative impacts to the environment, energy has become essential in modern society in such a way as to continue providing a means of growth and development and the realization of the continuing higher standards of living and economic well being of the population.
There needs to be, however, an increased awareness, towards a more effective form of resource exploration, in such a way as to ensure that energy production can be continued in greater harmony with the natural environment. Actions such as the use of primary power plants with minor or no impact for the environment using more renewable 1 sourcesthe technological adequacy of current energy Energias alternas yahoo dating, and the development of modern and more efficient technologies can be achieved.
In the current world socioeconomic context of development, the adoption of established energy strategies based in models of sustainable development is essential. It can also be mentioned, that a cultural change in the way in which energy is consumed, looking to provide only for basic necessities and a more intelligent, rational and responsible use of energy, would also contribute to this goal.
The use of energy, by itself, is responsible for more than two thirds of the greenhouse gases emissions-GHG and accounts for about half of all the projects currently approved by the Kyoto Protocol carbon market flexibility mechanisms.
Atmospheric pollution is associated mainly with the combustion of coal and other petroleum derived fuels including natural gas. Energias alternas yahoo dating aspects and impacts generated by the burning of gasoline and diesel may be seen in Table 1.
The main source inducing to climate change is the change in composition of the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities. These anomalies, in principle, result in emissions formed from the intensive use of fuels for energy use, mainly fossil and, in a more local and regional scale, due to the urbanization and intensive use of land.
The main uncertainties related to climate change are due to the analysis of the rate in which it is really changing. What appears to be more evident is that these will act more intensively in the future. The parameters most sensitive parameters to quantify for these changes are: During the XX century occurred an accelerated increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases - GHG in the atmosphere, altering abruptly its chemical composition.
Large scale direct anthropogenic impacts on the planet's surface are also a result of changes in land use that occur due to urbanization and bad agricultural practices. Such impacts, even though they have a local coverage, they are more significant where people live and work.
Large scale deforestation and desertification in some regions of the planet are two of the most significant influences for local climate changes and also global warming. The increase in surface temperature of 0. The implementation of programs that focus on supportive research and technological development are therefore necessary in the various aspects related to environment and climate change.
Analyzing the main macro-economic indicators during the last 34 years we may affirm that Brazilian economy grew there was an increase in the Gross Domestic Product-GDPas a result of the expansion of the energy sector from the primary production, energy supply to the final consumption, and investments.
The final energy consumption increased to Crude oil by-products presented just 2. Ethanol and natural gas consumption increased The industrial sector consumption of energy based on biomass firewood, charcoal, sugarcane bagasse and ethanol fuel and others renewable "Energias alternas yahoo dating" of energy increased 8. Moreover, the Brazilian electric generation park grew from 11 GW in to The hydraulic Energias alternas yahoo dating capacity in was of 69 GW, The world average was 1.
This indicator in the USA was in 0. Brazil's profile in terms of energy supply shows an evolution because the foreign dependency was reduced and there still is a significant use of renewable energy sources.
Figures 2 and 3 show models of production scenarios for primary energy in Brazil base and in the world base Energias alternas yahoo dating environmental advantages of the Brazilian Energy Matrix in relation to the rest of the world can be observed with a participation of over 85 MM toe of the renewable primary energy production on Emissions from the Energy System.
The data of the CO 2 emissions for each sector of the economy in Brazil are shown in Table 2. The description of the CO 2 emissions by energy resource is shown in Table 3. Current GHG Energias alternas yahoo dating due to the energy system in Brazil are considerably lower than those from land-use change.
Emissions from the energy system are very low indeed with respect to population 0. The main indicators of emissions in Brazil in are shown in the Table 5. Projections of development and emissions scenarios in the world. The considered scenarios have been: The established sustainable development indicators are summarized in Table 6 below. In Figure 4some projections for the world-wide population can be seen until the year of All these people will need adequate services of energy.
A transition for efficient and environmentally correct final use of the energy can diminish the possible conflicts between the development and the protection to the environment.
The projection of the world energy consumption until the year of is shown in Figure 5 below. Scenario C reveals to be very attractive from the environmental and energetic point of view for showing to be a scenario of low energy consumption and, probably, of high energy efficiency for the adoption of advanced technologies. Figure 6 shows the projection of the primary energy supply from several sources worldwide.
It can be observed that there is a reduction in the use of the fossil energy sources and an increase in the participation of some traditional renewable sources. Figure 7 shows the projections of the CO 2 emissions for the same scenarios considered in the study.
It is observed that scenario C is the most promising in environmental terms co-relates the characteristics of these scenarios for Table 6.
Figure 8 shows the published results of the variations in the temperature of the surface of the planet. Data is reconstructed and projections made up to Each considered scenario offers a result of foreseen increase of the temperature Energias alternas yahoo dating the year of The main dimensions involved on the energy sustainable future are related below: Since it was first launched inthe Brazilian Ethanol Program remains to date the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world.
It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane and its use to fuel car engines. Inethanol powered cars consumed 7. The carbon released into the atmosphere when bagasse and ethanol are consumed for fuel is compensated for by an equivalent quantity of carbon which is sequestered or absorbed by the sugarcane biomass during it life.
This author gives the results summarized in Table 7using as a base year. This total of 9. Accounting only for the substitution of gasoline, the use of ethanol has avoided the release into the atmosphere of an average of 5. Accordingly, the future expansion of the Ethanol Program could be ensured through an adequate flow of foreign investment, considering its global environmental benefits, in the framework of the Clean Development Mechanism approved at the Kyoto COP meeting in December Naturally, meeting the additionality criterion required for CDM eligibility will depend upon the baseline levels of sugar cane availability in the country as well as its use either for ethanol or sugar production.
Biodiesel fuels are methyl or ethyl esters derived from broad variety of renewable sources such Energias alternas yahoo dating vegetable oil soy, canola, rape seedanimal fat and cooking oil. In Brazil, a national program was launched in to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Lately, biodiesel has received increased attention because of its potential to reduce emissions, particularly greenhouse gas GHG emissions.
Since it is a renewable fuel that can be produced from plant and animal sources, an opportunity also exists to reduce GHG emissions when compared to nonrenewable petroleum diesel. The fuel consumption of biodiesel per kilometer traveled is similar to that of diesel when biodiesel is used as a diesel blend. Biodiesel has a lower energy content than diesel. Thus there is increased fuel consumption when pure biodiesel is used IEA, The main benefit of biodiesel is the reduced GHG emissions over the life cycle of the fuel.
The studies have shown that the emissions in the biodiesel life cycle are lower due to the fossil fuel energy demand required in the production of biodiesel, relative petroleum based diesel. There is, however, more significant N 2 O emission effects "Energias alternas yahoo dating" with agricultural practices used in crop production.
The value of by-products formed from biodiesel production is also an issue in conducting an LCA.
A number of biodiesel life cycle studies have been conducted internationally using various crop sources. The B2 blend is of interest primarily because of its engine lubricating properties and as a result of the lower sulphur content in petroleum diesel Table 8. The B20 blend is the most popular for vehicle use and has been the test fuel from many demonstration projects.
It is also being used on a regular basis in fleets throughout the U. This "neat" fuel use maximizes the environmental advantages but raises questions about engine manufactures acceptance with respect to warranty and cold weather properties Table The following reporter analyzed some feedstock for biodiesel from life cycle emissions and shows the analysis of the emissions avoided with the different Energias alternas yahoo dating of biodiesel Table The anthropogenic agents, in particular fossil fuel energy use, will have an important roll in the climate change in the next centuries.
Human development, technological changes, population growth and the production and consumption of energy will affect future emissions.