It is divided in municipalities and its capital city is Puebla. It is located in East-Central Mexico. The origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, which was founded by the Spanish in this valley in to secure the trade route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence in the early 19th century.
Since that time the area, especially around the capital city, has continued to grow economically, mostly through industry, despite being the scene of a number of battles, the most notable of which being the Battle of Puebla. Today, the state is one of the most industrialized in the country, but since most of its development is concentrated in Puebla and other cities, many of its rural areas are very poor, forcing many to migrate away to places such as Mexico City and the United States.
Culturally, the state is home to the China Poblanamole poblanoactive literary and arts scenes and festivals such as Cinco de MayoRitual of Quetzalcoatl, Day of the Dead celebrations especially in Huaquechula and Carnival especially in Huejotzingo. It is home to five major indigenous groups: Nahuasthe Totonacsthe Mixtecsthe Popolocas and the Otomiwhich can mostly be found in the far north and the far south of the state.
It has a triangular shape with its narrow part to the north. The state occupies 33, km 2ranking 20th "7 regions de puebla yahoo dating" 31 states in size, and has 4, named communities. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo.
The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and covering less than 2.
The hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. This river receives further water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Atila, Amacuzac, Molinos and Cohetzala. The river has one major dam called 7 regions de puebla yahoo dating or Manuel Avila Camacho. This river eventually flows west to the Pacific Ocean. This system has two major dams called the Necaxa and Mazatepec. The third is based on the large number of small lakes fresh water springs as well as some volcanically heated springs.
Puebla has many different climates owing to its range of altitudes. The state has eleven different climate 7 regions de puebla yahoo dating, but five predominate. The high volcano peaks have a cold climate. The state has three main ecosystems, forests in temperate and cold areas, tropical rainforest and arid and semi-arid zones. These forests mostly consist of pines, holm oakoyamel fir and other conifers Abies religiosaPinus pseudostrobusPinus attenuataPinus ayacahuitePinus leiophyllaPinus patulaPinus teocoteQuercus sppQuercus rugosaAlnus sppArbutus sppCupressus spp and Juniperus spp.
Much of these areas have been extensively logged and some areas are used to farm trees. These trees are used for wood, paper and other wood-derived products. Due to human activity overhectares are considered to be severely damaged. Tropical forests are divided into moist, semi-moist and dry forests. The most common species include Ceiba parvifloraBursera simarubaCedrela odorataSwietenia macrophyllaSpondias mombinBrosimum alicastrumCoccoloba barbadensPithecellobium arboreumLysiloma divaricatePhoeba tampicensisAcacia coulteri and Ficus spp.
These forests are also exploited for wood and other products, including traditional handcrafts. Low growing plants are used to feed livestock. Little is known about the ecosystems of these forests, but it is known that these areas are important to the regulation of water in area rivers. Human activity has severely damaged over 32, hectares.
Types of vegetation often found includes mesquite, huizachal and agave, with species such as Agave spp, Yuca spp, Opuntia spp, Aristida spp and Stipa spp. There is no forestry here but a number of plants are used for fibers, waxes, resins, handcrafts, medicine and a number are edible to both humans and livestock. Many of these arid areas subdivide into microclimates depending on minor variations in temperature and precipitation.
Some areas, especially dry grasslands, have suffered overgrazing and soil erosion. These are mostly found in the higher elevations of the mountains where the average temperature is around 15C and at heights of between 2, and 2,masl. Above 3,m Pinus hartwegil is dominant. Pine species which are the most economically valuable and include Pinus montezumaePinus psedudostrobusPinus ayacahuitePinus geggilPinus hartwegilPinus lawsoniPinus leiophyllaPinus michoacanaPinus ocarpaPinus patul and Pinus teocote.
The second most common kind of forest 7 regions de puebla yahoo dating dominated by oyamel fir, often intermingling with pines and oaks. Forests with trees such as Juniperus spp. Tropical forests are divided by altitude. Upper forests are characterized by dense vegetation in fairly humid climates. The tree canopy reaches an average height of 15 meters. Not all species are evergreen, with a number losing leaves during the dry season. During the same season, a number of species also flower.
For this reason, these forests never 7 regions de puebla yahoo dating lose their color. Common species include Cedrela sp. Most forests of this type are located near the borders with Veracruz and Hidalgo. These areas often have a dry season of seven or eight months, and many of these forests will lose most or all of their leaves during this time. Common species include Bursera simarubaLysiloma divaricataPhoebe tampicensisAcacia coulteriBeaucamea inemisLysiloma acapulcensis and Zuelania guidonia.
In the south, near Puebla's borders with Oaxaca and Guerrero are dry mountainous areas, some of which are completely devoid of vegetation, similar to African deserts. Other are populated only by the occasional cactus, with those belonging to the Fouquieria family standing out on the landscape.
Where there are arroyos, the vegetation changes drastically to include a wide variety of plants packed along a narrow strip.
Other areas in this part of the state are semi-arid, home to a variety of plant and bird species. Access to the park, especially to the volcanoes themselves is more restricted than in the past due to past ecological damage.
Even further restrictions are put into place when the Popocatepetl volcano is active. However, the park has numerous hiking and horse paths in the forests that cover the lower elevations. On the slopes, there are many small caves, which in pre-Hispanic times were often used for ceremonies. The Sierra Madre Oriental, locally called the Sierra Norte, is a series of rugged mountains covered in abundant vegetation, which has had an isolating effect on the people here over the centuries.
It is really a series of small valleys covering hectares filled with conifer forest. The attraction here are the stone formations which resemble stones stacked one over the other which take on numerous forms. Some have been said to resemble objects such as dogs, elephants, human heads and monsters. Most of the area is only "7 regions de puebla yahoo dating" by foot or horseback.
In the center of the state, just before the land "7 regions de puebla yahoo dating" to the north to form the Sierra Norte, there is an area filled with lakes, both with water and dry. The dry lakebeds contain water only during the rainy season, which runs from summer through fall.
The two largest are 7 regions de puebla yahoo dating and Totocingo Lakes. The first is seven km long and two km wide and the second is larger. The territory of the state was one of the first in modern Mexico to be inhabited by humans.
At this site the oldest sample of corn ever found in the world has been found, which dates back to BCE. By BCE, there is ample evidence of the cultivation of corn, beans, squash, chili peppers and cotton. The rise of city states was established by BCE. By the Mesoamerican period, the area was inhabited by a number of ethnicities.
Tepexi was dominated by the Popolocas. The central part of the state was dominated by the Olmec-Xicalancas and Nahuaswith strong cultural links to the Toltec -based culture at Cholula. In the 14th century, Nonoalca ruler Xelhua, came to dominate almost all of the territory of Puebla. In the 15th century, Aztec domination took over the same area and more.
Initially, the center and south areas were under the control of Tenochtitlan with Texcoco dominant in the north. Aztec domination continued until the Spanish Conquest. Many of the peoples here were under Aztec domination and saw the foreigners as a way to escape. This act terrified those who opposed the Spanish and they submitted.